This library is derived from the DEC10 library random. Later, the core
random generator was moved to C. The current version uses the SWI-Prolog
arithmetic functions to realise this library. These functions are based
on the GMP library.
- author
- - R.A. O'Keefe, V.S. Costa, L. Damas, Jan Wielemaker
- See also
- - Built-in function random/1: A is
random(10)
- random(-R:float) is det
- Binds R to a new random float in the open interval (0.0,1.0).
- See also
- - setrand/1, getrand/1 may be used to fetch/set the state.
- - In SWI-Prolog, random/1 is implemented by the function
random_float/0.
- random_between(+L:int, +U:int, -R:int) is semidet
- Binds R to a random integer in [L,U] (i.e., including both L and
U). Fails silently if U<L.
- random(+L:int, +U:int, -R:int) is det
- random(+L:float, +U:float, -R:float) is det
- Generate a random integer or float in a range. If L and U are
both integers, R is a random integer in the half open interval
[L,U). If L and U are both floats, R is a float in the open
interval (L,U).
- deprecated
- - Please use random/1 for generating a random float
and random_between/3 for generating a random integer. Note that
random_between/3 includes the upper bound, while this
predicate excludes it.
- setrand(+State) is det
- getrand(-State) is det
- Query/set the state of the random generator. This is intended
for restarting the generator at a known state only. The
predicate setrand/1 accepts an opaque term returned by
getrand/1. This term may be asserted, written and read. The
application may not make other assumptions about this term.
For compatibility reasons with older versions of this library,
setrand/1 also accepts a term rand(A,B,C)
, where A, B and C are
integers in the range 1..30,000. This argument is used to seed
the random generator. Deprecated.
- Errors
- -
existence_error(random_state, _)
is raised if the
underlying infrastructure cannot fetch the random state.
This is currently the case if SWI-Prolog is not compiled
with the GMP library.
- See also
- - set_random/1 and random_property/1 provide the SWI-Prolog
native implementation.
- maybe is semidet
- Succeed/fail with equal probability (variant of maybe/1).
- maybe(+P) is semidet
- Succeed with probability P, fail with probability 1-P
- maybe(+K, +N) is semidet
- Succeed with probability K/N (variant of maybe/1)
- random_perm2(?A, ?B, ?X, ?Y) is semidet
- Does X=A,Y=B or X=B,Y=A with equal probability.
- random_member(-X, +List:list) is semidet
- X is a random member of List. Equivalent to random_between(1,
|List|), followed by nth1/3. Fails of List is the empty list.
- Compatibility
- - Quintus and SICStus libraries.
- random_select(-X, +List, -Rest) is semidet
- random_select(+X, -List, +Rest) is det
- Randomly select or insert an element. Either List or Rest must
be a list. Fails if List is the empty list.
- Compatibility
- - Quintus and SICStus libraries.
- randset(+K:int, +N:int, -S:list(int)) is det
- S is a sorted list of K unique random integers in the range 1..N.
The implementation uses different techniques depending on the ratio
K/N. For small K/N it generates a set of K random numbers, removes
the duplicates and adds more numbers until |S| is K. For a large K/N
it enumerates 1..N and decides randomly to include the number or
not. For example:
?- randset(5, 5, S).
S = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]. (always)
?- randset(5, 20, S).
S = [2, 7, 10, 19, 20].
- See also
- - randseq/3.
- randseq(+K:int, +N:int, -List:list(int)) is det
- S is a list of K unique random integers in the range 1..N. The
order is random. Defined as
randseq(K, N, List) :-
randset(K, N, Set),
random_permutation(Set, List).
- See also
- - randset/3.
- random_permutation(+List, -Permutation) is det
- random_permutation(-List, +Permutation) is det
- Permutation is a random permutation of List. This is intended to
process the elements of List in random order. The predicate is
symmetric.
- Errors
- - instantiation_error,
type_error(list, _)
.
Undocumented predicates
The following predicates are exported, but not or incorrectly documented.
- getrand(Arg1)