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 lists.pl
take(+Length, +List, -Prefix) is semidet
True if Prefix is a list of length Length and that is the prefix of List.

## Re-exported predicates

The following predicates are re-exported from other modules

min_member(-Min, +List) is semidet
True when Min is the smallest member in the standard order of terms. Fails if List is empty.
- compare/3
- min_list/2 for the minimum of a list of numbers.
flatten(+NestedList, -FlatList) is det
Is true if FlatList is a non-nested version of NestedList. Note that empty lists are removed. In standard Prolog, this implies that the atom '[]' is removed too. In SWI7, `[]` is distinct from '[]'.

Ending up needing flatten/2 often indicates, like append/3 for appending two lists, a bad design. Efficient code that generates lists from generated small lists must use difference lists, often possible through grammar rules for optimal readability.

- append/2
proper_length(@List, -Length) is semidet
True when Length is the number of elements in the proper list List. This is equivalent to
```proper_length(List, Length) :-
is_list(List),
length(List, Length).```
append(?List1, ?List2, ?List1AndList2)
List1AndList2 is the concatenation of List1 and List2
nth1(?Index, ?List, ?Elem)
Is true when Elem is the Index'th element of List. Counting starts at 1.
- nth0/3.
selectchk(+Elem, +List, -Rest) is semidet
Semi-deterministic removal of first element in List that unifies with Elem.
subtract(+Set, +Delete, -Result) is det
Delete all elements in Delete from Set. Deletion is based on unification using memberchk/2. The complexity is |Delete|*|Set|. A set is defined to be an unordered list without duplicates. Elements are considered duplicates if they can be unified.
- ord_subtract/3.
list_to_set(+List, ?Set) is det
True when Set has the same elements as List in the same order. The left-most copy of duplicate elements is retained. List may contain variables. Elements E1 and E2 are considered duplicates iff E1 == E2 holds. The complexity of the implementation is N*`log(N)`.
Errors
- List is type-checked.
- sort/2 can be used to create an ordered set. Many set operations on ordered sets are order N rather than order N**2. The list_to_set/2 predicate is more expensive than sort/2 because it involves, two sorts and a linear scan.
Compatibility
- Up to version 6.3.11, list_to_set/2 had complexity N**2 and equality was tested using =/2.
max_list(+List:list(number), -Max:number) is semidet
True if Max is the largest number in List. Fails if List is empty.
- max_member/2.
max_member(-Max, +List) is semidet
True when Max is the largest member in the standard order of terms. Fails if List is empty.
- compare/3
- max_list/2 for the maximum of a list of numbers.
permutation(?Xs, ?Ys) is nondet
True when Xs is a permutation of Ys. This can solve for Ys given Xs or Xs given Ys, or even enumerate Xs and Ys together. The predicate permutation/2 is primarily intended to generate permutations. Note that a list of length N has N! permutations, and unbounded permutation generation becomes prohibitively expensive, even for rather short lists (10! = 3,628,800).

If both Xs and Ys are provided and both lists have equal length the order is |Xs|^2. Simply testing whether Xs is a permutation of Ys can be achieved in order log(|Xs|) using msort/2 as illustrated below with the `semidet` predicate is_permutation/2:

```is_permutation(Xs, Ys) :-
msort(Xs, Sorted),
msort(Ys, Sorted).```

The example below illustrates that Xs and Ys being proper lists is not a sufficient condition to use the above replacement.

```?- permutation([1,2], [X,Y]).
X = 1, Y = 2 ;
X = 2, Y = 1 ;
false.```
Errors
- `type_error(list, Arg)` if either argument is not a proper or partial list.
last(?List, ?Last)
Succeeds when Last is the last element of List. This predicate is `semidet` if List is a list and `multi` if List is a partial list.
Compatibility
- There is no de-facto standard for the argument order of last/2. Be careful when porting code or use `append(_, [Last], List)` as a portable alternative.
member(?Elem, ?List)
True if Elem is a member of List. The SWI-Prolog definition differs from the classical one. Our definition avoids unpacking each list element twice and provides determinism on the last element. E.g. this is deterministic:
`    member(X, [One]).`
author
- Gertjan van Noord
nth0(?Index, ?List, ?Elem)
True when Elem is the Index'th element of List. Counting starts at 0.
Errors
- `type_error(integer, Index)` if Index is not an integer or unbound.
- nth1/3.
select(?X, ?XList, ?Y, ?YList) is nondet
Select from two lists at the same position. True if XList is unifiable with YList apart a single element at the same position that is unified with X in XList and with Y in YList. A typical use for this predicate is to replace an element, as shown in the example below. All possible substitutions are performed on backtracking.
```?- select(b, [a,b,c,b], 2, X).
X = [a, 2, c, b] ;
X = [a, b, c, 2] ;
false.```
- selectchk/4 provides a semidet version.
subset(+SubSet, +Set) is semidet
True if all elements of SubSet belong to Set as well. Membership test is based on memberchk/2. The complexity is |SubSet|*|Set|. A set is defined to be an unordered list without duplicates. Elements are considered duplicates if they can be unified.
- ord_subset/2.
is_set(@Set) is semidet
True if Set is a proper list without duplicates. Equivalence is based on ==/2. The implementation uses sort/2, which implies that the complexity is N*`log(N)` and the predicate may cause a resource-error. There are no other error conditions.
sum_list(+List, -Sum) is det
Sum is the result of adding all numbers in List.
min_member(:Pred, -Min, +List) is semidet
True when Min is the smallest member according to Pred, which must be a 2-argument callable that behaves like (@=<)/2. Fails if List is empty. The following call is equivalent to max_member/2:
```?- min_member(@=<, X, [6,1,8,4]).
X = 1.```
- min_list/2 for the minimum of a list of numbers.
subseq(+List, -SubList, -Complement) is nondet
subseq(-List, +SubList, +Complement) is nondet
Is true when SubList contains a subset of the elements of List in the same order and Complement contains all elements of List not in SubList, also in the order they appear in List.
Compatibility
- SICStus. The SWI-Prolog version raises an error for less instantiated modes as these do not terminate.
reverse(?List1, ?List2)
Is true when the elements of List2 are in reverse order compared to List1. This predicate is deterministic if either list is a proper list. If both lists are partial lists backtracking generates increasingly long lists.
nth1(?N, ?List, ?Elem, ?Rest) is det
As nth0/4, but counting starts at 1.
select(?Elem, ?List1, ?List2)
Is true when List1, with Elem removed, results in List2. This implementation is determinsitic if the last element of List1 has been selected.
append(+ListOfLists, ?List)
Concatenate a list of lists. Is true if ListOfLists is a list of lists, and List is the concatenation of these lists.
Arguments:
 ListOfLists - must be a list of possibly partial lists
selectchk(?X, ?XList, ?Y, ?YList) is semidet
Semi-deterministic version of select/4.
union(+Set1, +Set2, -Set3) is det
True if Set3 unifies with the union of the lists Set1 and Set2. The complexity of this predicate is |Set1|*|Set2|. A set is defined to be an unordered list without duplicates. Elements are considered duplicates if they can be unified.
- ord_union/3
numlist(+Low, +High, -List) is semidet
List is a list [Low, Low+1, ... High]. Fails if High < Low.
Errors
- `type_error(integer, Low)`
- `type_error(integer, High)`
max_member(:Pred, -Max, +List) is semidet
True when Max is the largest member according to Pred, which must be a 2-argument callable that behaves like (@=<)/2. Fails if List is empty. The following call is equivalent to max_member/2:
```?- max_member(@=<, X, [6,1,8,4]).
X = 8.```
- max_list/2 for the maximum of a list of numbers.
clumped(+Items, -Pairs)
Pairs is a list of `Item-Count` pairs that represents the run length encoding of Items. For example:
```?- clumped([a,a,b,a,a,a,a,c,c,c], R).
R = [a-2, b-1, a-4, c-3].```
Compatibility
- SICStus
same_length(?List1, ?List2)
Is true when List1 and List2 are lists with the same number of elements. The predicate is deterministic if at least one of the arguments is a proper list. It is non-deterministic if both arguments are partial lists.
- length/2
nth0(?N, ?List, ?Elem, ?Rest) is det
Select/insert element at index. True when Elem is the N'th (0-based) element of List and Rest is the remainder (as in by select/3) of List. For example:
```?- nth0(I, [a,b,c], E, R).
I = 0, E = a, R = [b, c] ;
I = 1, E = b, R = [a, c] ;
I = 2, E = c, R = [a, b] ;
false.```
```?- nth0(1, L, a1, [a,b]).
L = [a, a1, b].```
delete(+List1, @Elem, -List2) is det
Delete matching elements from a list. True when List2 is a list with all elements from List1 except for those that unify with Elem. Matching Elem with elements of List1 is uses ```\+ Elem \= H```, which implies that Elem is not changed.
- select/3, subtract/3.
deprecated
- There are too many ways in which one might want to delete elements from a list to justify the name. Think of matching (= vs. ==), delete first/all, be deterministic or not.
nextto(?X, ?Y, ?List)
True if Y directly follows X in List.
prefix(?Part, ?Whole)
True iff Part is a leading substring of Whole. This is the same as `append(Part, _, Whole)`.
intersection(+Set1, +Set2, -Set3) is det
True if Set3 unifies with the intersection of Set1 and Set2. The complexity of this predicate is |Set1|*|Set2|. A set is defined to be an unordered list without duplicates. Elements are considered duplicates if they can be unified.