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jpl.pl -- A Java interface for SWI Prolog 7.x
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The library(jpl) provides a bidirectional interface to a Java Virtual Machine.

See also
- http://jpl7.org/
Source jpl_new(+X, +Params, -V) is det
X can be:
  • an atomic classname, e.g. 'java.lang.String'
  • or an atomic descriptor, e.g. '[I' or 'Ljava.lang.String;'
  • or a suitable type, i.e. any class(_,_) or array(_), e.g. class([java,util],['Date'])

If X is an object (non-array) type or descriptor and Params is a list of values or references, then V is the result of an invocation of that type's most specifically-typed constructor to whose respective formal parameters the actual Params are assignable (and assigned).

If X is an array type or descriptor and Params is a list of values or references, each of which is (independently) assignable to the array element type, then V is a new array of as many elements as Params has members, initialised with the respective members of Params.

If X is an array type or descriptor and Params is a non-negative integer N, then V is a new array of that type, with N elements, each initialised to Java's appropriate default value for the type.

If V is {Term} then we attempt to convert a new org.jpl7.Term instance to a corresponding term; this is of little obvious use here, but is consistent with jpl_call/4 and jpl_get/3.

Source jpl_call(+X, +MethodName:atom, +Params:list(datum), -Result:datum) is det
X should be either
  • an object reference, e.g. <jref>(1552320) (for static or instance methods)
  • or a classname, e.g. 'java.util.Date' (for static methods only)
  • or a descriptor, e.g. 'Ljava.util.Date;' (for static methods only)
  • or type, e.g. class([java,util],['Date']) (for static methods only)

MethodName should be a method name (as an atom) (may involve dynamic overload resolution based on inferred types of params)

Params should be a proper list (perhaps empty) of suitable actual parameters for the named method.

The class or object may have several methods with the given name; JPL will resolve (per call) to the most appropriate method based on the quantity and inferred types of Params. This resolution mimics the corresponding static resolution performed by Java compilers.

Finally, an attempt will be made to unify Result with the method's returned value, or with @(void) if it has none.

Source jpl_get(+X, +Fspec, -V:datum) is det
X can be
  • a classname
  • or a descriptor
  • or an (object or array) type (for static fields)
  • or a non-array object (for static and non-static fields)
  • or an array (for 'length' pseudo field, or indexed element retrieval)

Fspec can be

  • an atomic field name
  • or an integral array index (to get an element from an array)
  • or a pair I-J of integers (to get a subrange of an array).

Finally, an attempt will be made to unify V with the retrieved value or object reference.

Examples

jpl_get('java.awt.Cursor', 'NE_RESIZE_CURSOR', Q).
Q = 7.

jpl_new(array(class([java,lang],['String'])), [for,while,do,if,then,else,try,catch,finally], A),
jpl_get(A, 3-5, B).
B = [if, then, else].
Source jpl_set(+X, +Fspec, +V) is det
sets the Fspec-th field of (class or object) X to value V iff it is assignable

X can be

  • a class instance (for static or non-static fields)
  • or an array (for indexed element or subrange assignment)
  • or a classname, or a class(_,_) or array(_) type (for static fields)
  • but not a String (no fields to retrieve)

Fspec can be

  • an atomic field name (overloading through shadowing has yet to be handled properly)
  • or an array index I (X must be an array object: V is assigned to X[I])
  • or a pair I-J of integers (X must be an array object, V must be a list of values: successive members of V are assigned to X[I..J])

V must be a suitable value or object.

Source jpl_get_default_jvm_opts(-Opts:list(atom)) is det
Returns (as a list of atoms) the options which will be passed to the JVM when it is initialised, e.g. ['-Xrs']
Source jpl_set_default_jvm_opts(+Opts:list(atom)) is det
Replaces the default JVM initialisation options with those supplied.
Source jpl_get_actual_jvm_opts(-Opts:list(atom)) is semidet
Returns (as a list of atoms) the options with which the JVM was initialised.

Fails silently if a JVM has not yet been started, and can thus be used to test for this.

Source jpl_pl_lib_version(-Version)
Version is the fully qualified version identifier of the in-use Prolog component (jpl.pl) of JPL.

It should exactly match the version identifiers of JPL's C (jpl.c) and Java (jpl.jar) components.

Example

?- jpl_pl_lib_version(V).
V = '7.4.0-alpha'.
Source jpl_c_lib_version(-Version)
Version is the fully qualified version identifier of the in-use C component (jpl.c) of JPL.

It should exactly match the version identifiers of JPL's Prolog (jpl.pl) and Java (jpl.jar) components.

Example

?- jpl_c_lib_version(V).
V = '7.4.0-alpha'.
Source jpl_class_to_classname(+Class:jref, -ClassName:dottedName)
Class is a reference to a class object.

ClassName is its canonical (?) source-syntax (dotted) name, e.g. 'java.util.Date'

NB not used outside jni_junk and jpl_test (is this (still) true?)

NB oughta use the available caches (but their indexing doesn't suit)

Source jpl_class_to_type(+ClassObject:jref, -Type:type)
ClassObject is a reference to a class object of Type.

NB should ensure that, if not found in cache, then cache is updated.

Intriguingly, getParameterTypes returns class objects (undocumented AFAIK) with names 'boolean', 'byte' etc. and even 'void' (?!)

Source jpl_classname_to_class(+ClassName:className, -Class:jref)
ClassName unambiguously represents a class, e.g. 'java.lang.String'

Class is a (canonical) reference to the corresponding class object.

NB uses caches where the class is already encountered.

Source jpl_classname_to_type(+Classname:className, -Type:type)
Classname is any of: a source-syntax (dotted) class name, e.g. 'java.util.Date', '[java.util.Date' or '[L'

Type is its corresponding JPL type structure, e.g. class([java,util],['Date']), array(class([java,util],['Date'])), array(long)

NB by "classname" do I mean "typename"?

NB should this throw an exception for unbound CN? is this public API?

Source jpl_datum_to_type(+Datum:datum, -Type:type)
Datum must be a JPL representation of an instance of one (or more) Java types;

Type is the unique most specialised type of which Datum denotes an instance;

NB 3 is an instance of byte, char, short, int and long, of which byte and char are the joint, overlapping most specialised types, so this relates 3 to the pseudo subtype 'char_byte';

See also
- jpl_type_to_preferred_concrete_type/2 for converting inferred types to instantiable types
Source jpl_object_to_class(+Object:jref, -Class:jref)
fails silently if Object is not a valid reference to a Java object

Class is a (canonical) reference to the (canonical) class object which represents the class of Object

NB what's the point of caching the type if we don't look there first?

Source jpl_object_to_type(+Object:jref, -Type:type)
Object must be a proper JPL reference to a Java object (i.e. a class or array instance, but not null, void or String).

Type is the JPL type of that object.

Source jpl_primitive_type(-Type:atom) is nondet
Type is an atomic JPL representation of one of Java's primitive types.
?- setof(Type, jpl_primitive_type(Type), Types).
Types = [boolean, byte, char, double, float, int, long, short].
Source jpl_ref_to_type(+Ref:jref, -Type:type)
Ref must be a proper JPL reference (to an object, null or void).

Type is its type.

Source jpl_type_to_class(+Type:type, -Class:jref)
Incomplete types are now never cached (or otherwise passed around).

jFindClass throws an exception if FCN can't be found.

Source jpl_type_to_classname(+Type:type, -ClassName:dottedName)
Type, which is a class or array type (not sure about the others...), is denoted by ClassName in dotted syntax.

e.g. jpl_type_to_classname(class([java,util],['Date']), 'java.util.Date')

See also
- jpl_type_to_nicename/2
Source jpl_is_class(@Term)
True if Term is a JPL reference to an instance of java.lang.Class.
Source jpl_is_false(@Term)
True if Term is @(false), the JPL representation of the Java boolean value 'false'.
Source jpl_is_null(@Term)
True if Term is @(null), the JPL representation of Java's 'null' reference.
Source jpl_is_object(@Term)
True if Term is a well-formed JPL object reference.

NB this checks only syntax, not whether the object exists.

Source jpl_is_object_type(@Term)
True if Term is an object (class or array) type, not e.g. a primitive, null or void.
Source jpl_is_ref(@Term)
True if Term is a well-formed JPL reference, either to a Java object or to Java's notional but important 'null' non-object.
Source jpl_is_true(@Term)
True if Term is @(true), the JPL representation of the Java boolean value 'true'.
Source jpl_is_type(@Term)
True if Term is a well-formed JPL type structure.
Source jpl_is_void(@Term)
True if Term is @(void), the JPL representation of the pseudo Java value 'void' (which is returned by jpl_call/4 when invoked on void methods).

NB you can try passing 'void' back to Java, but it won't ever be interested.

Source jpl_false(-X:datum) is semidet
X is @(false), the JPL representation of the Java boolean value 'false'.
See also
- jpl_is_false/1
Source jpl_null(-X:datum) is semidet
X is @(null), the JPL representation of Java's 'null' reference
See also
- jpl_is_null/1
Source jpl_true(-X:datum) is semidet
X is @(true), the JPL representation of the Java boolean value 'true'.
See also
- jpl_is_true/1
Source jpl_void(-X:datum) is semidet
X is @(void), the JPL representation of the pseudo Java value 'void'
See also
- jpl_is_void/1
Source jpl_array_to_length(+Array:jref, -Length:integer)
Array should be a JPL reference to a Java array of any type.

Length is the length of that array.

This is a utility predicate, defined thus:

jpl_array_to_length(A, N) :-
    (   jpl_ref_to_type(A, array(_))
    ->  jGetArrayLength(A, N)
    ).
Source jpl_array_to_list(+Array:jref, -Elements:list(datum))
Array should be a JPL reference to a Java array of any type.

Elements is a Prolog list of JPL representations of the array's elements (values or references, as appropriate).

This is a utility predicate, defined thus:

jpl_array_to_list(A, Es) :-
    jpl_array_to_length(A, Len),
    (   Len > 0
    ->  LoBound is 0,
        HiBound is Len-1,
        jpl_get(A, LoBound-HiBound, Es)
    ;   Es = []
    ).
Source jpl_datums_to_array(+Datums:list(datum), -A:jref)
A will be a JPL reference to a new Java array, whose base type is the most specific Java type of which each member of Datums is (directly or indirectly) an instance.

NB this fails silently if

  • Datums is an empty list (no base type can be inferred)
  • Datums contains both a primitive value and an object (including array) reference (no common supertype)
Source jpl_enumeration_element(+Enumeration:jref, -Element:datum)
generates each Element from the Enumeration
  • if the element is a java.lang.String then Element will be an atom
  • if the element is null then Element will (oughta) be null
  • otherwise I reckon it has to be an object ref
Source jpl_enumeration_to_list(+Enumeration:jref, -Elements:list(datum))
Enumeration should be a JPL reference to an object which implements the Enumeration interface.

Elements is a Prolog list of JPL references to the enumerated objects.

This is a utility predicate, defined thus:

jpl_enumeration_to_list(Enumeration, Es) :-
    (   jpl_call(Enumeration, hasMoreElements, [], @(true))
    ->  jpl_call(Enumeration, nextElement, [], E),
        Es = [E|Es1],
        jpl_enumeration_to_list(Enumeration, Es1)
    ;   Es = []
    ).
Source jpl_hashtable_pair(+HashTable:jref, -KeyValuePair:pair(datum,datum)) is nondet
Generates Key-Value pairs from the given HashTable.

NB String is converted to atom but Integer is presumably returned as an object ref (i.e. as elsewhere, no auto unboxing);

NB this is anachronistic: the Map interface is preferred.

Source jpl_iterator_element(+Iterator:jref, -Element:datum)
Iterator should be a JPL reference to an object which implements the java.util.Iterator interface.

Element is the JPL representation of the next element in the iteration.

This is a utility predicate, defined thus:

jpl_iterator_element(I, E) :-
    (   jpl_call(I, hasNext, [], @(true))
    ->  (   jpl_call(I, next, [], E)
        ;   jpl_iterator_element(I, E)
        )
    ).
Source jpl_list_to_array(+Datums:list(datum), -Array:jref)
Datums should be a proper Prolog list of JPL datums (values or references).

If Datums have a most specific common supertype, then Array is a JPL reference to a new Java array, whose base type is that common supertype, and whose respective elements are the Java values or objects represented by Datums.

Source jpl_terms_to_array(+Terms:list(term), -Array:jref) is semidet
Terms should be a proper Prolog list of arbitrary terms.

Array is a JPL reference to a new Java array of org.jpl7.Term, whose elements represent the respective members of the list.

Source jpl_array_to_terms(+JRef:jref, -Terms:list(term))
JRef should be a JPL reference to a Java array of org.jpl7.Term instances (or ots subtypes); Terms will be a list of the terms which the respective array elements represent.
Source jpl_map_element(+Map:jref, -KeyValue:pair(datum,datum)) is nondet
Map must be a JPL Reference to an object which implements the java.util.Map interface

This generates each Key-Value pair from the Map, e.g.

?- jpl_call('java.lang.System', getProperties, [], Map), jpl_map_element(Map, E).
Map = @<jref>(0x20b5c38),
E = 'java.runtime.name'-'Java(TM) SE Runtime Environment' ;
Map = @<jref>(0x20b5c38),
E = 'sun.boot.library.path'-'C:\\Program Files\\Java\\jre7\\bin'
etc.

This is a utility predicate, defined thus:

jpl_map_element(Map, K-V) :-
    jpl_call(Map, entrySet, [], ES),
    jpl_set_element(ES, E),
    jpl_call(E, getKey, [], K),
    jpl_call(E, getValue, [], V).
Source jpl_set_element(+Set:jref, -Element:datum) is nondet
Set must be a JPL reference to an object which implements the java.util.Set interface.

On backtracking, Element is bound to a JPL representation of each element of Set.

This is a utility predicate, defined thus:

jpl_set_element(S, E) :-
    jpl_call(S, iterator, [], I),
    jpl_iterator_element(I, E).
Source jpl_servlet_byref(+Config, +Request, +Response)
This serves the "byref" servlet demo, exemplifying one tactic for implementing a servlet in Prolog by accepting the Request and Response objects as JPL references and accessing their members via JPL as required;
See also
- jpl_servlet_byval/3
Source jpl_servlet_byval(+MultiMap, -ContentType:atom, -Body:atom)
This exemplifies an alternative (to jpl_servlet_byref) tactic for implementing a servlet in Prolog; most Request fields are extracted in Java before this is called, and passed in as a multimap (a map, some of whose values are maps).
Source jpl_pl_syntax(-Syntax:atom)
unifies Syntax with 'traditional' or 'modern' according to the mode in which SWI Prolog 7.x was started