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Pack logtalk -- logtalk-3.11.2/INSTALL.md

This file is part of Logtalk http://logtalk.org/ Copyright 1998-2017 Paulo Moura <pmoura@logtalk.org>

Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with the License. You may obtain a copy of the License at


Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the License for the specific language governing permissions and limitations under the License. ________________________________________________________________________


The recommended way of installing Logtalk is to use, whenever possible, one of the provided installers that are available from the Logtalk web site.

This file contains detailed instructions for manual installation and configuration of Logtalk. You should also consult the scripts/NOTES.md and integration/NOTES.md files for a description of a set of shell scripts that might be used for Logtalk installation on some operating-systems and for easy Logtalk integration with popular Prolog compilers.

The POSIX shell scripts assume that `/bin/bash` is available.

Logtalk basic installation

Manual installation of Logtalk can be accomplished by decompressing the sources archive (or by cloning the development git server), running an installation script, and defining a couple of environment variables. You can install Logtalk in any user accessible location. Whenever possible, it is recommended that Logtalk be installed by a user with administrative rights, as described below. This leads to a setup where each Logtalk user may freely try and modify the provided examples, library, and tool files with the option of, at any time, restoring the files to its original state by simply running one of the provided scripts.

  • Installing for a single user with no administrative rights: For POSIX systems, first, open a terminal, change the current directory to the Logtalk directory, and then type:
    % cd scripts
    % ./install.sh -p $HOME

    This will install Logtalk into the $HOME/share and $HOME/bin directories (the $HOME/bin path must be in your PATH environment variable).

    If you're using Windows, you can simply use the provided installer (which supports both admin and non-admin users) to perform a full installation. The Windows installer is built using Inno Setup, which is freely available. If you need to customize the installer (e.g. to recognize Prolog compilers installed in non-standard locations), edit the Inno Setup script found on the [scripts/windows](scripts/windows) directory and regenerate the installer.

  • Installing for one or more users by a user with administrative rights: For POSIX systems, first, open a terminal, change the current directory to the Logtalk directory, and then type:
    % cd scripts
    % sudo ./install.sh

    This installation script makes all files read-only for non-admin users in order to avoid user tampering. This is a convenient setup for computer labs, given that making directories world-writable is a security risk. The install script accepts an installation prefix as argument. For example:

    % sudo ./install.sh -p /opt/local

    If no prefix is given, the default installation prefix depends on the operating-system:

  • Mac OS X: `/opt/local`
  • Debian distributions: `/usr`
  • Other POSIX systems: `/usr/local` The script installs Logtalk in the $prefix/share directory with Prolog integration and other useful shell scripts written to the $prefix/bin directory, which should be in your path. The install.sh shell script also creates a symbolic link, $prefix/share/logtalk, which can be used for e.g. defining the LOGTALKHOME environment variable described below.

    If you're using Windows, you can simply use the provided GUI installer (which supports both admin and non-admin users) to perform a full installation. You can also easily generate the GUI installer yourself. See the instructions on the scripts/windows/NOTES.md file.

Setting Logtalk environment variables

You need to set two environment variables, LOGTALKHOME and LOGTALKUSER. The environment variable LOGTALKHOME should be set to the Logtalk installation directory. The environment variable LOGTALKUSER should point to a directory in your home directory where you want to store the user-specific Logtalk files (by default, $HOME/logtalk on POSIX systems and `My Documents\Logtalk` on Windows). Both environment variables may be set for all users by a user with administration privileges.

For POSIX systems, add the following lines to your `~/.profile` file:


If you use instead a csh shell, add the following line to your `~/.cshrc` file:

setenv LOGTALKHOME /your/logtalk/installation/directory
setenv LOGTALKUSER ${HOME}/logtalk
setenv PATH ${PATH}:${LOGTALKHOME}/tools/lgtdoc/xml:${LOGTALKHOME}/scripts:${LOGTALKHOME}/integration

Don't use relative paths such as ../ or ./ in the definition of the environment variables. Some Prolog compilers don't expand environment variables, resulting in `file not found` errors when attempting to use the Logtalk integration scripts.

When using the provided shell script for installing Logtalk, a symbolic link to the Logtalk installation directory is automatically created. The link is named logtalk. In this case, you may use this symbolic link to define the LOGTALKHOME environment variable in order to avoid breaking it when upgrading Logtalk.

If you're using Windows, the provided GUI installer (which supports both admin and non-admin users) takes care of the definition of the environment variables.

End-user setup (copying Logtalk user-modifiable files to users home directories)

If you installed Logtalk on your home directory, then skip this step if and only if you have set both Logtalk environment variables (LOGTALKHOME and LOGTALKUSER) to point to the same directory.

Each user must make a local copy of the Logtalk user-modifiable files (examples, libraries, tools, and other supporting files) in his/her home directory. These copies can be easily made by running the logtalk_user_setup shell script (see the scripts/NOTES.md file for details):

  • POSIX systems % logtalk_user_setup
  • Windows `C:\> logtalk_user_setup`

    The local copies made by the logtalk_user_setup scripts have both read and write permissions for the user running the script. When used with one of the back-end Prolog compilers for which an integration script is provided on the integration directory, this setup as the advantage of allowing each end-user to independently customize default compilation flags, library paths, and modify and experiment with the provided libraries and examples.

    Windows (admin and non-admin) users may also use the Logtalk GUI installer to setup their Logtalk user folder and the LOGTALKUSER environment variable.

    User applications should preferable be kept outside of the Logtalk user folder created by the scripts above as updating Logtalk often results in updating the contents of this folder. If your applications depend on customizations to the distribution files, backup those changes before updating Logtalk (the scripts above automatically make a backup of any existing Logtalk user folder but you should rely on your own backups).

Creating new prolog top-levels for automatic loading of Logtalk

Most Prolog compilers allows the user to define an initialization file that is automatically consulted at startup. These initialization files may contain directives for loading other files, such as the Logtalk adapter file and the Logtalk compiler/runtime. The $LOGTALKHOME/integration sub-directory contains shell scripts for running Logtalk with all supported back-end Prolog compilers. You can use these scripts as examples when creating initialization files for other Prolog compilers. Be sure to read the adapters/NOTES.md file notes on the Prolog compilers that you intend to use.

Customizing Logtalk

Please see the file CUSTOMIZE.md for details on how to customize your Logtalk installation and working environment.